Shah Waliullah | Pakistan Affairs, CSS Notes, Topic-5

Shah Waliullah

“In the 18th century, Islam in the sub-continent faced with such menacing problem in sectional conflict, low moral tone of the society. Poor understanding of the Holy Quran general ignorance of Islam, that there were valid for fearing that political disintegration would be accompanied by religious collapse. That this did not happen was due more than anything else to the services of one man, Shah Walliullah.”                                                                                                       (S. M. Ikram)

Early Life and Education

  • Born in 1703.
  • Father was a Sufi and theologian who assisted Aurangzeb in compilation of Fatwa.e.Alamgiri.
  • Early education from father in Hadith,Fiqah,Logic and metaphysics.
  • Teaching for 12y in father’s Madarassah.
  • Travel to Arabia.

“During his last stay at Makkah he saw a vision in which the Prophet (PBUH) blessed him with the good binding that he will be instrumental in the organization of a section of Muslim community.”

Condition Of Islam At His Time

  • Social, political turmoil and disruptive forces at work.
  • The weak successor of Aurangzaib.
  • External forces, Sikhs, Marhattas.
  • Clash between religious groups.

Shah’s Movement

  1. Religious Reforms.

  1. Translation of Quran.
  2. Explanation of Mautta.
  3. Establishment of Madarssah Rahimiya.
  4. Synthesis of different schools of thought.
  5. Efforts for revival of Islam.
  6. Unity among scholars.
  7. Emphasis on Ijtahad.
  1. Social Reforms

  1. Hijjat-al-baligha(causes of turmoil).
  2. Emphasis on basic rights, justice, equality.                                                                                        
  1. Economical Reforms

  1. Equal distribution of wealth.
  2. Balanced approach.
  1. Political Reforms

  1. Rectification of rulers.
  2. Letter to Ahmed Shah Abdali.
  3. Defeat to Marhattas.
  4. Two nations.


“He was a realist in political thinking. He had a clear vision of society, religion, ethics and politics.”

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