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Degeneration Of Muslims In Subcontinent | Pakistan Affairs, CSS Notes, Topic-3

Degeneration Of Muslims In Subcontinent

    The death of Aurangzeb in 1707 was the signal for the disintegration of mighty Muslim rule, which dazzled the contemporary world by its extensive territories, military might and cultural achievements. In the fifth years following the death of Aurangzeb, nine Mughal emperors followed each other in quick successions. Among the various causes responsible for the decline and downfall, following deserve special attention.

“Within a short time of Aurangzeb’s death, the imposing edifice of Mughal empire began to crack and crumble.”   (Ch. Mohd Ali)

  1. Weak Successors
  • Aurangzeb divided state in three parts
  • Moazzam overthrown others
  • Incapable rulers lacking vision and qualities
  • Ahmad Shah Rangila
  1. Degeneration Of Morality
  • Indulgence in immoral activities
  • Harem and its luxuries
  • Isolation from military and state
  • Degeneration of nobles and their decedents
  1. Court Factions
  • Rivalries between different groups
  • Difference between Indians and non native element
  • Defective law of succession
  1. Rise Of Marhattas
  • Most important factor of all
  • A dream of Hindu state
  • A number of wars with

            Mughals to get hold over

            India.

  1. Demoralised Army
  • Deterioration of military system
  • Indulgence in wealth and luxuries
  • Involvement in court politics
  • King making
  • Raids of Marhattas and Nadir Shah
  1. Economic Bankruptcy
  • Expenses of Deccan wars against Marhatta
  • Deterioration of agriculture
  • Revolt of provinces and refusal of pay taxes
  1. The size and nature of the Mughal State
  • Multi religious society
  • Lack of cohesion among different religions
  • The vastness of the empire
  • Invasion of Nadir shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali
  1. Arrival of Europeans
  • East India Company
  • Increasing Influence

“For a century and a half, the English had been humble     petitioners to the Mughal emperors.” (Phillip Woodruff)

  1. Neglect Of Sea Power
  • Hold of Western Powers
  • Less focus on education and technology

Conclusion

  • Slow collapse due to strength and prestige

“The exit of last Mughal monarch from the   throne of Delhi was not only a symbol of their downfall but also an end to their existence as a separate and dominant group in Indian political life.” (K. K. Aziz)

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